ITIL Foundation Certification

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ITIL Foundation Certification (original title)

Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)[1][2] is a set of practices for IT service management (ITSM) that focuses on aligning IT services with the needs of business.

ITIL Foundation Exam

Study Aides

Official ITIL Exam App [3]
Locks up on a whenever schedule and forces a reboot on my iPhone 7 Plus.

The[4], a Linkedin site, site has the lessons available through May 2017.

  • For use for an account, jumps to, then login with nid password.
ITIL V3 Foundation Complete Certification Kit (2009)


Main Article: ITIL Foundation Exam Tips

  • Multiple choice
  • 40 questions at one point each
  • 26 correct required to pass - 65%
  • 1 hour duration
  • Closed book
  • 300 question pool

Goal: Score 90% on a consistent basis.

Question Pool

Main Article: ITIL Question Pool

Catalog the questions.

  • Nine Topics

Service Areas

  1. Service Strategy
  2. Service Design
  3. Service Transition
  4. Service Operation
  5. Continual Service Improvement

Taking the Exam

65% Pass

  • Service Strategy - need help
  • Service Design - good
  • Service Transition - need help

Main Article: ITIL Continual Service Transition

  • Service Operation

Main Article: ITIL Service Operation

  • Continual Service Improvement

Main Article: ITIL Continual Service Improvement

Lynda Videos

UCF contract with Lynda Videos ended on May 31, 2018. No more access after that.

All by David Pultorak.

1. Putting ITIL Into Practice: Applying ITIL Foundation Concepts

Seven Principles and Models

  1. Value creation through services
  2. People, processes, products, and partners. The Four P's,
  3. Five aspects of service design.
    1. Services
    2. Management Information Systems and Tools
    3. Technology and Management Architectures
    4. Processes
    5. Measurement Methods and Metrics
  4. CSI approach
  5. CSFs and KPIs
  6. Baselines
  7. Technology, processes, and service metrics

Service Management Roles

  • Responsible Accountable Consulted Informed (RACI)
  • Critical Success Factors (CSF)
  • Key Performance Indicators (KPI)

Five Volumes in 26 processes.

  • Service Strategy Processes 5
    • Strategy Management for IT Services
    • Service Portfolio Management
    • Financial Management for IT Services
    • Demand Management
    • Business Relationship Management
  • Service Design Processes
    • Design Coordination
    • Service Catalogue
    • Service Level
    • Availability
    • Capacity
    • IT Service Continuity
    • Information Security
    • Supplier Management
  • Service Transition Processes
    • Transition Planning & Support
    • Change Management
    • Service Asset & Configuration Management
    • Release & Deployment Management
    • Service Validation & Testing
    • Change Evolution
    • Knowledge Management
  • Service Operation
    • Event Management
    • Incident Management
    • Request Fulfillment
    • Problem Management
    • Access Management
  • Continual Service Improvement (CSI) Approach
    • Seven-Step Improvement Process

    • Service Level Management
    • Service Measurement & Reporting

Pluralsight Videos

  1. ITIL Foundation: Core Concepts by Chris Ward, latest video
  • Notes

IT Service Management (ITSM)

Framework, not a standard

Vendor neutral - works for everyone
Non-prescriptive - No auditing, specialist
Best practice - ipso facto
Delivers value - Something the customer values

Core attributes for each role

  • Awareness of the business
  • Awareness of IT's role and capabilities
  • Customer service skills
  • Role knowledge and competence
  • Understanding of best practice use

Exam Tips

  • online proctored exam through People-Cert
  • IT Service - A service provided to one or more customers by an IT service provider. An IT service is made up of a combination of information technology, people, and processes.
    • Customer-facing IT services
    • Supporting IT services
  • Types of IT Services
    • Core - Delivers outcomes that represent the value that the customer desires
    • Enabling - Required for a core service to be delivered and may not be visible to the customer
    • Enhancing - Additions to a core service to make it more attractive or exciting
  • IT service management (ITSM) is the implementation and management of quality IT services that meet the needs of the business. It is performed by IT service providers through an appropriate mix of people, process and information technology.
  • IT Service Provider
    • Type 1 - Internal Service Provider - Embedded with a business unit
    • Type 2 - Shared Services Unit - Internal provider sharing services among business units
    • Type 3 - External Service Provider - Provides IT services to external customers
  • Customers vs. Users
    • Customers may not always use the service
    • Users always use the service
  • Suppliers -
    • Customer Assets
    • Service Assets - Supplied by IT service provider


  • Governance is the single overarching area that ties IT and the business together, and services are one way of ensuring that the organization is able to execute that governance. Governance is what defines the common directions, policies and rules that both the business and IT use to conduct business.
  • Applies a consistent management approach at all levels
  • Ensures strategy is set, followed by policies
  • Policies define boundaries
  • Supports and enforces transparency
  • ISO/IEC 38500 standard for IT services governance

Risk Management

  • Management of Risk (MoR)
  • Risk may be defined as uncertainty of an outcome, whether a positive opportunity or a negative threat

Process - A process is a structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective. A process takes one or more defined inputs and turns them into outputs.

  • Measurable
  • Specific Results
  • Customers
  • Responsive to specific trigger

Service Automation

  • Capacity adjustments in response to demand variations
  • Fewer restrictions across time zones and after-hours
  • Good basis for measurement and improvement
  • Automated knowledge capture

Roles: Who Does What and Why?

  • Process Owner - accountable
  • Process Manager - accountable for operational management of a process
  • Process Practitioner - does the work, carries out process activities
  • Service Owner - accountable for the deliver of a specific IT service


  • Responsible
  • Accountable
  • Consulted
  • Informed

ITIL Foundation: Lifecycle Phases and Processes

by Chris Ward 3h 42m


  • Services - Are a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating the outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks.
  • IT Service - A service provided to one or more customers by an IT service provider. An IT service is made up of a combination of information technology, people and processes.
  • Process - A process is a structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective. A process takes one or more defined inputs and turns them into outputs.
    • Measurable
    • Specific Results
    • Customers - A process delivers results to customers
    • Responsive - Responds to a trigger


Service Strategy Definition - Service Strategy defines the perspective, position, plans, and patterns that a service provider need to be able to execute in order to meet an organization's business outcomes.

  1. Purpose
    1. Four P's
      1. Perspective
      2. Position
      3. Plans
      4. Patterns
  2. Objectives
    1. Understand of what strategy is
    2. Clearly identify and define services for customers
    3. Define how value is created and delivered
    4. Document and coordinate service assets used to deliver services
    5. Clear service provision model for delivery and funding of services
  3. Processes
    1. Service portfolio management (SPM)
      1. Service Pipeline
      2. Service Catalog
      3. Retired Services
    2. Financial management for IT services
      1. Business Case - justification for a significant investment
    3. Business relationship management

Service Design Definition - The objective of Service Design is to effectively design IT services while minimizing the need for improvement over the life of IT services.

  1. Realizing service provider's strategy
  2. Design
    1. IT services
    2. Practices and policies
    3. Processes
  3. Cost-effectively design new and changed services
  4. Five Aspects of Design
    1. Service solutions
    2. Tools
    3. Architecture
    4. Processes
    5. Measurements metrics
  5. Four P's
    1. People
    2. Processes
    3. Products/technology
    4. Partners/suppliers
  6. The Service Design Package (SDP)
  7. Processes
    1. Service catalog management
    2. Service level management
    3. Capacity management
    4. Availability management
    5. Design coordination
    6. information security management
    7. ITSCM
    8. Supplier management

Service Design Processes: Setting the Stage for Successful Delivery

  1. Design Coordination
    1. Support projects through design activities
    2. Maintain policies
    3. Coordinate scheduling
    4. Plan and forecast demand
    5. Measure and improve processes
    6. Ensure all requirements are met in the SDP
  2. Service level Management (SLM)
    1. Service level management Scope

In Scope

      1. Negotiation & Agreement of SLRs
      2. Documentation of SLAs, OLAs, and UCs
      3. Review of Supplier Agreements
      4. Proactive actions to improve service levels
      5. Reporting of service levels & review breaches
      6. Identifying improvements

Out of Scope

  1. Negotiation of functionality (utility)
  2. Negotiation of contracts and underpinning agreements

Service level targets (SLT)

Types of Agreements

  1. SLA - external
    1. Service Based SLA - one agreement covers all the service users.
    2. Customer Based SLA - one agreement covers all the services for a user.
    3. Corporate level SLA - covers generic services for all the customers.
  2. OLA - internal
  3. UC

SLA Monitoring (SLAM Chart) - Tracks each service over time with coarse grained performance measures. For example, Green, Red, and Yellow. Service Level Requirements (SLR)

  1. Service Catalog management
    1. Provide and maintain a single source of information about operational services, including those being prepared
    2. Ensure availability of the service Catalog to those authorized to use it.

Manage the information in the service catalog
Ensure the accuracy of the service catalog
Ensure availability
Ensure the service catalog

  1. Supplier management
  1. Availability Management
    1. Agreed Availability
    2. Current and future availability
    3. Proactive
    4. Reactive
    5. Aspects of Availability
      1. Availability
      2. Reliability
      3. Maintainability
      4. Serviceability
      5. Virtual business functions (VBF)s
      6. Component Availability - The network functions
      7. Service Availability - The network delivers the service.
  2. Capacity management
    1. Ensure that the level of capacity delivered matches the agreed capacity needs of the business
    2. Meet current and future capacity needs of the business
    3. Objectives of Capacity Management
      1. Produce and maintain an up-to-date capacity plan.
      2. Provide guidance for any capacity related issues
      3. Ensure that the service performance meets agreed targets
      4. Assist the service desk and incident management teams with the diagnosis of capacity related incidents
    4. Component Capacity
    5. Business Capacity
    6. Service Capacity
  3. IT service continuity management (ITSCM)
    1. To support the overall business continuity management process by ensuring that the IT service provider can always provide minimum agreed business continuity-related service levels. ITSCM uses formal risk assessment and management techniques to plan and prepare for the recovery of services.
    2. Objectives of ITSCM
      1. Produce and maintain a set of ITSCM plans that support the overall BCM plan
      2. Complete regular business impact analysis
      3. Conduct risk assessment and management
      4. Assess the impact of any changes on the ITSCM plan
      5. Work with supplier management to negotiate for any supplier recovery capabilities
    3. Scope of ITSCM
      1. Agree with the business on the scope of ITSCM plan
      2. Conduct BIA activities
      3. Produce overall ITSCM strategy
      4. Conduct risk assessment
      5. Regularly test and improve continuity plans

Business Impact Analysis is the activity in BCM that identifies the vital business functions and their dependencies. BIA defines the recovery requirements for IT services including RTO and RPO for each IT service.

  1. Information security management (ISM)
    1. Purpose of ISM
      1. Align IT security with business security
      2. Ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of assets, information, data, and IT services.
    2. Objectives of ISM
      1. Ensure confidentiality of information
      2. Ensure integrity of information
      3. Ensure availability of information
      4. Ensure authenticity of business transactions and exchanges

picem plan implement control evaluate maintain

Service Transition Introduction: Adding, Changing, and Retiring Services

  1. Purpose, Objectives, and Scope of Service Transition
  2. Service Transition Stage
    1. Purpose: Service Transition exists to ensure that new, modified, or retired services meet the expectations of the business.
    2. Scope of Service Transition
      1. Managing complexity of change
      2. Allowing for innovation while minimizing risk
      3. Introducing new services and retiring unneeded services
      4. Transferring services to and from external service providers
  3. Business Value of Service Transition
  4. Value to Business from Service Transition
    1. Higher volumes of successful changes
    2. Reduces delays from unexpected interactions
    3. Improves service expectations for stakeholders
    4. Enables accurate estimations of cost, risk, timing, etc.
    5. Enables Service Transition assets to be shared
    6. Reduces effort spent on managing test/pilot environments
  5. Service Transition Processes

Service Transition Stage

  1. Transition planning and support
    1. Plan and coordinate transition resources
    2. Coordinate activities across projects
    3. Provide clear and comprehensive plans
    4. Establish new tools and technology
    5. Monitor and improve performance
    6. Identify, manage, and control risk
  2. Service asset and configuration management (SACM)
    1. Ensure assets required to deliver services are controlled
    2. Ensure accurate and reliable information is available
    3. Understand the relationship between service assets
    4. Objectives
      1. Make sure assets are identified, controlled and managed
      2. Identify, control, record and audit CIs
      3. Protect the integrity of the CIs
      4. Maintain accurate configuration information
      5. Support other service management processes
    5. Scope of SACM
      1. Manage the lifecycle of configuration items (CI)s
      2. Identify, baseline, and maintain CIs
      3. Interface with other service management processes
      4. Interface with external service providers
  3. Change management
    1. Purpose
      1. Control the lifecycle of all changes
      2. Enable beneficial changes
      3. Minimize any disruption associated with changes
    2. Objectives
      1. Respond to changing business reqs
      2. Maximize value while reducing disruption
      3. Respond to requests for change
      4. Ensure all requests & changes are recorded
      5. Ensure that changes are authorized: Prioritized, planned, tested, implemented, and documented
      6. Ensure that all changes are recorded in the CMS
    3. Scope
      1. Service solutions for new or changed services
      2. MIS and tools
      3. The Service Portfolio
      4. Technology & Management Architecture
      5. Service management processes
      6. Measurement systems, methods & metrics
    4. Non-Scope
      1. Organizationally defined items
      2. Changes to business operations and policies
      3. Some operational changes

  1. Release and deployment management
    1. Purpose
      1. Plan, schedule and control the build, test and deployment of releases
      2. Deliver new functionality
      3. Protect the integrity of existing services
    2. Objectives
      1. Define and agree upon RDM plans with stakeholders
      2. Create and test release packages
      3. Deploy release packages to live operations
      4. Ensure that all release packages are tracked throughout the lifecycle
      5. Ensure required knowledge and skills are transferred to users/customers, and service desk/IT Ops.
    3. Scope
      1. All processes & systems necessary to build, test, and deploy a release package as specified in the SDP.
      2. All CIs to implement a release
  2. Knowledge Management
    1. Purpose
      1. Share perspectives, ideas, information
      2. Make sure information assets are available in the right place and time
      3. Enable informed decision making
      4. Reduce the need to recreate knowledge
    2. Objectives
      1. Improve the quality of management decision making
      2. Enable the service provider to be more efficient, increase satisfaction
      3. Make sure that the SKMS provides controlled access
      4. Gather, analyse, store, share, use and maintain knowledge, information & data.

Service Operation

  1. Purpose - Coordinate and carry out the activities/processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed upon levels. Provide ongoing management of the technology that is used to deliver and support the services.
  2. Objectives
    1. Maintain business satisfaction
    2. Ensure effective delivery and support of agreed IT services
    3. Minimize the impact of service outages on day-to-day business activities
    4. Grant access to services for authorized users
  3. Scope
    1. Services provided
    2. Service management processes
    3. Technology
    4. People
  4. Business Value
    1. Reduce unplanned labor and costs
    2. Reduce duration and frequency of service outages
    3. Provide operational data for use by other processes
    4. Meet the organization's security policies
    5. Provide quick access to standard services
    6. Provide a basis for automated operations
  5. Communications
  6. Processes
    1. Event management
      1. Purpose
        1. Manage events through their lifecycle
        2. Provide the basis for operational monitoring
        3. Detect, analyse, and determine responses to events
        4. Used for automation
      2. Event - A change of state that has significance for the management of an IT service or other configuration item.
      3. Alert - A notification that a threshold has been reached, something changed, or a failure has occurred. Alerts are created and managed by the event management process.
      4. Objectives
        1. Detect all changes of state that have significance to a CI or IT service
        2. Determine the appropriate response
        3. Provide the trigger for other operational processes
        4. Provide the means to compare actual performance to design standards
        5. Provide a basis for service assurance and reporting
      5. Scope
        1. Any service management aspect that needs to be controlled and can be automated
        2. Monitoring and event management are related, but different
      6. Event Types
        1. Informational event
        2. Warning event
        3. Exception event
    2. Incident management
      1. An unplanned interruption to an IT service, or a reduction in the quality of an IT service, or a failure of a CI that has not yet impacted an IT service.
      2. Purpose
        1. Restore normal service operation as quickly as possible
        2. Minimize the adverse impact on business operations
      3. Objectives
        1. Ensure standardized methods and procedures are used for efficiency
        2. Increase visibility and communication of incidents to business and IT staff
        3. Enhance business perception of IT
        4. Align incident management activities and priorities with those of the business
        5. Maintain user satisfaction with the quality of IT services.
      4. Scope
        1. In
          1. Any event that indicates a disruption to an IT service
          2. Any event that COULD disrupt an IT service
        2. Out
          1. Informational events
          2. Service requests
          3. Normal maintenance
      5. Incident Models - A way of predefining the steps that should be taken to handle a particular type of incident as agreed upon by the business and IT operations
      6. Timescales
        1. Must be agreed for all incident stages
        2. Will differ based on priority
        3. Must be based on SLAs
        4. Captured as targets on OLAs
      7. Incident Status Tracking
        1. Open, In progress, Resolved, Closed
      8. Major Incident - The highest category of impact for an incident. A major incident results in a significant disruption to the business. It requires a separate procedure with shorter timescales and greater urgency.
      9. Incident Management Workflow
    3. Problem management
      1. Purpose
        1. Manage the lifecycle of all problems
        2. Understand and document all known errors
        3. Reactively minimize adverse impacts
        4. Proactively prevent recurrence of incidents
      2. Problem - An underlying cause of one or more incidents. The cause is usually not known at the time the problem record is created. Problem management is responsible for further investigation to find the root cause.
      3. Objectives
        1. Prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening
        2. Eliminate recurring incidents
        3. Minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented
      4. Scope
        1. Proactive
          1. Identifies and solves problems and known errors before the incident recurs
          2. Performed on an ongoing basis
          3. Conducts major incident reviews
          4. Conducts reviews of operational logs
          5. Conducts brainstorm meetings
        2. Reactive
          1. Solves problems associated with incidents
          2. Triggered in response to repeated exception events.
    4. Request fulfilment
      1. Objectives
        1. Maintain customer and user satisfaction
        2. Efficiently handle requests
        3. Provide a channel for users to make requests
        4. Provide information to users
        5. Source and deliver resources/components
        6. Assist with complaints, comments, and compliments.
    5. Access management
      1. Purpose and Objectives of Access Management
        1. Provide the right for users to be able to user a service
        2. Execute the Information Security Policy
        3. Manage access to services based on the policy
        4. Respond to requests
        5. Monitor access
      2. Scope
        1. In
          1. Protects confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data and intellectual property
          2. Ensures authorized users are given the rights to use services
          3. Is typically performed across functions with a single point of coordination
        2. Out
          1. Deciding who should or shouldn't have the right to use a service (ISM)
          2. Making sure the services and data are available (Availability Mgmt.)
      3. Confidentiality Integrity and Availability (CIA) of Access Management.
  7. Functions
    1. Function - A team of group of people and the tools or other resources they use to carry out one or more processes or activities.
    2. Service desk
      1. Functional unit with dedicated staff
      2. Single Point of Contact (SPOC) for all users on a day to day basis
      3. Coordination point for IT groups
      4. Common, Centralized, Virtual, Follow-the-Sun, Service Desks.
    3. Technical management
      1. Plan, implement, and maintain the technical infrastructure
      2. Maintain adequate technical skills
      3. Utilize technical skills to diagnose and resolve technical failures
    4. IT Operations management
      1. IT Operations Control
        1. Console management/Operations Bridge
        2. Job scheduling
        3. Batch jobs and scripts
        4. Backup and restore activities
        5. Print and output management
        6. Maintenance activities
      2. Facilities Management
        1. Manages physical IT environments
        2. Data centers
        3. Computer rooms
        4. Recovery sites (ITSCM)
        5. Power and cooling equipment (Environmental equipment)
      3. Objectives
        1. Provide stability for daily processes and activities (status quo)
        2. Review and improve procedures and activities
        3. Swift application of operational skills to diagnose and resolve any IT operation failures that occur
    5. Application management
      1. Objectives
        1. Support the business processes of the organization
        2. Identify functionality and manageability requirements for applications
        3. Assist in the design, deployment and operational management of applications
        4. Ensure functionality supports the business
        5. Focus on well-designed, resilient, and cost effective applications
        6. Swift use of technical skills to diagnose and resolve technical failures due to applicaions.


  1. Application Development
    1. One-time set of activities to design and construct application solutions
    2. Utility focus
    3. Project management based
    4. More focus on creativity
    5. Software development lifecycles
  2. Application Management
    1. ongoing set of activities to oversee and manage applications throughout their entire lifecycle
    2. Utility and warranty focused
    3. Operational, ongoing process management based
    4. More focus on consistency
    5. Operation and CSI stages of service lifecycle


  1. Types
    1. Standard Change
      1. Pre-authorized
      2. Low risk
      3. Follow a defined workflow/procedure
    2. Normal Change
      1. Follow the normal procedure
      2. Brought before change advisory board
    3. Emergency Change
      1. Responding to disruption in service or potential disruption
      2. Urgency dictates being brought before emergency change advisory board
    4. CAB
    5. eCAB - Emergency Change Advisory Board

(PBA)s Patterns of Business Activities

Continual Service Improvement (CSI)

  1. Purpose
  2. Objectives
  3. Scope

Internal Links

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