# Assorted Notes

• ACM, July 2019

On The Hourglass Model, by Micah Beck. p. 48. Successful, internet, layered approach but not really applicable here.

• ACM, December 2018

Designing Emotionally Sentient Agents BY DANIEL MCDUFF AND MARY CZERWINSKI p. 74
Chat Bots that can detect and project emotions. Affective Computing, by Rosalind Picard 1996 MIT Press. Argues that for software to interact effectively with people, that software must be able to recognize and project emotions. The Uncanny Valley, a disconnect between how human a robot looks and how realistic its emotional responses are.

A Century-Long Commitment to Assessing Artificial Intelligence and Its Impact on Society BY BARBARA J. GROSZ AND PETER STONE.
The Stanford One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence[1], a project that launched in December 2014, is designed to be a century-long periodic assessment of the field of artificial intelligence (AI) and its influences on people, their communities, and society. Colloquially referred to as “AI100,”.
First report September 2016.
AI and Life in 2030

Neuromorphic Computing[2]

The AI100 project has begun a complementary effort, the Artificial Intelligence Index (AI Index)[3]

• ACM, September 2018

Is Software the Result of Top-Down Intelligent Design or Evolution?
Edward A. Lee (eal@berkeley.edu) is the Robert S. Pepper Distinguished Professor in EECS at UC Berkeley, CA, USA.
Dennett, D.C. From Bacteria to Bach and Back: The Evolution of Minds. W.W. Norton and Company, 2017.

• "The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail." 1997
• Required reading for tech executives
• Valid criticism abounds. Especially when a new technology or innovation outpaces society.

Center for Unstoppable Computing (CERES)[4]

• How can an Operating System be unstoppable?

Competitive Release[5]

Operating Systems[6] and Machines[7].

• Will MutantOS need a new machine that is different from a Turing Machine? Sure hope not.
• There is still the problem of making MutantOS run on COTS hardware designed for a Turing type OS.
• That means a hardware abstraction layer. But layered from what to what?

Infinity

• There are different kinds. There are different densities.
• Hilbert's Hotel
• The Banach-Tarski Apple

UCF tuition for auditing a graduate class is about \$370 per credit hour. Probably the same at other universities.

Publishing an article in a peer-refereed journal.

https://writing.ufl.edu/students/writing-courses-at-uf/uwp-syllabi/ UF courses
ENC 4454 Writing the Science Thesis
ENC 5319 Scholarly Writing for Publication

Scientific articles come in two forms, experimental results, data, and idea papers.

The writing itself is no problem, I'm literate.

Publishing

Formating the article for publication.

A.W. Burks on von Neumann’s investigations on self-reproduction.
Burks, A. W. “Introduction” Essays on Cellular Automata. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970

p. 41 Life at the Edge of Chaos by Christopher G. Langton - A complexity level below which self-organization can not occur.

p. 211 Self-Structuring and Selection: Spiral Waves as a Substrate for Prebiotic Evolution by Boerlijst nad Hogeweg.

p. 313 Co-Evolving Parasites Improve Simulated Evolution as an Optimization Procedure by W. Daniel Hillis.

p. 371 An Approach to the Synthesis of Life by Thomas S. Ray.

"Lindenmayer Systems (L-systems)" for studying morphogenesis.

"problem of teleology in biology", what is the "purpose" behind all this?

"fitness landscapes"

Before self-reporducing life, there were parasites.

von Neumann, self-reporducing automata.

prokaryotic cells - simplier
eukaryotic cells - more complex

parasites can speed up the time to get to the local, or global, optimum by accelerating the "Red Queen" process.

research
studies
programs - maybe time to host LIFE on the website.
Open in new window, with title, run program. Command buttons. Stop, Restart, Close.

"A New Definition of Artificial Life"
by Chris Langton
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Langton
Still can't find a decent copy.

Conway's Life program.

2D and 3D.
Santa Fe Institute has their online at Worldcat.org.
We get hits.
au:christopher g. langton
but no digital versions.

http://www.biota.org/ - nothing.

von Neumann Machine -
[8]
Computer Hardware Architecture for implementing a Turing Machine using a single bus for memory and instruction transportation.

Harvard Architecture
[9]
Computer Hardware Architecture for implementing a Turing Machine using a separate buses for memory and instruction transportation.

"Artificial Life:A Report from the Frontier Where Computers Meet Biology " Steven Levy 1993
Vintage, Reprint
[10]

UCF Comp Sci[11]
Dr. Gary T. Leavens, Chair
Harris Corp. Engineering Center (HEC)
Do they have their own library? No, everything is in the Hitt Library.

Where did the term "artificial intelligence" come from?

John McCarthy [12]

The term “artificial intelligence” was coined by John McCarthy, a math professor at Dartmouth, in 1955 when he—along with Marvin Minsky of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Claude Shannon of Bell Laboratories, and Nathaniel Rochester of IBM—said they would study “the conjecture that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.”

John McCarthy was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist. McCarthy was one of the founders of the discipline of artificial intelligence. Wikipedia
Born: September 4, 1927, Boston, MA
Died: October 24, 2011, Stanford, CA
Awards: Turing Award, More
Education: Princeton University (1951), California Institute of Technology (1948)
Influenced by: Alonzo Church, Stephen Cole Kleene, Solomon Lefschetz

computablility in principle Is a behavior computable? Example is Turing's Halting Problem. Can you find the Halt State in another machine?

computability in practice There is a formal specification for a behavior, but we can't figure it out.

Separate the logical structure for a machine from the specification for the machine's behavior. "Switch on, and see what happens."

von Neumann and automata theory

Samuel's famout checker playing program Samuel, A.L. 1959, "Some Studies in Machine Learning using the Game of Checkers", IBM J. Res. Dev. 3, 210-229 [13] [14] [15]

p. 9. Hillis exploits host-parasite dynamics to reach a global-opitmum. "Co-Evolving Parasites Improve Simulated Evolution as an Optimization Procedure. p. 313 W. Daniel Hillis.

Better motivators than starvation are needed. Parasites are one. :)

The Proceedings 2 is divided into Origin/Self-Organization - simulating going from inert to self-replicating. Interesting, but not my focus.

Evolutionary Dynamics - Evolving software.

Development -

Learning and Evolution - adding software learning to evolution. Can parent software teach their children? Can they store ideas outside themselves?

Computation

Philosophy/ Emergence

The Future

The Survey of Earned Doctorates is an annual census conducted jointly by six federal agencies of all individuals receiving a research doctorate from an accredited U.S. institution in a given academic year. Results are used to assess characteristics of the doctoral population and trends in doctoral education and degrees in the United States. Doctoral students must complete the survey available at showRegister.[17] Additional information is available at the NORC web site.[18]

Polanyi's Paradox - You know more than you can describe.[19]

Synchronizing a Distributed System.
Things break
Signals are lost
The clocks never synchronize.
ACM May 2015 p.38 or page 40.

Scientific American December 2016 - The Evolution of Myths - How myths travel and change with human migration and commerce. p. 62-69

Punctuated Equilibrium - Branching Speciation is a rare and quick event. Most species remain unchanged from creation to extinction.

Pernicious [20] Causing subtle damage.

Asynchrony[21] uncoordinated communication.

Partial failure
FLP Result for authors Fischer, Lynch, and Paterson

# The Singularity Problem

Humans instinctively look for a single solution to a problem. Finding one solution has great appeal. Only one thing needs a description, explanation, and testing. Building confidence one explanation is easy. Teaching that one solution is also easy. This works wonderfully for simple problems. The weakness is that complex problems require many solutions with each contributing a fraction until all the fractions add up to 1.

Problems with clock synch. Plants use a rough clock, the Sun. Bacteria use no external clock.
How complex can calculations be without clock synchronization?
Depends on communications complexity.
Programs used to leave notes as files for other programs to pick up.

• Have to assume no two clocks are synchronized to an acceptable degree.
• Since a Darwin Machine is event driven. A process might rest suspended, not using any energy, until awakened. This could save tremendous electricity over the long term. If hardware can take advantage.

Most languages are closed-universe, like SQL and logic programs.
Open-universe languages using first-order logic.

Propagation of Uncertainty[22]

Pseudoplasmodium[23] A multicellular assembly formed by dictyostelid amoebae. The amoebae gather together, attached to each other, to search for food during harsh conditions. When conditions improve they split apart. A common gene is allows them to attach and detach. This could be useful in solving tasks on the fly.

# Asteroids

Should there be walls or Wraparound? Wraparound. Solves the 'Stuck in the corner problem.'

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_Space - first arcade game I ever played.

Best way to understand wraparound is to write Asteroids 3D in C++. http://asteroids3d.sourceforge.net/ here ya go

Dice[24] sides - opposing sides always add to 7

How is the life oriented? In any universe you can only move in one direction at a time.

So 1 will be the front.
2       - Top (Dorsal)(White)
3 1 4     - Left(Port)(Red) - Front - Right (Starboard)(Green)
5       - Bottom (Belly)(Yellow)
6       - Back (Aft)

Axis
X 1 is front X+, 6 is aft X-
Y 2 is up Y+, 5 is down Y-
Z 3 is right starboard green Z+, 4 is left port red Z-
Cardinal direction is always the smallest number.



4          3
Left       Right
Port       Starboard
Red        Green



How is the universe oriented? The same way, except there is no real "front".

Jeff Clune, U. of Wyoming, 'Evolving Artificial Intelligence Laboratory'[26]. Interesting.

Computational Biology has A.L. aspects, like growing bacteria in Petri dish.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_Life_(journal) Quarterly - 1993 to present, peer-reviewed

Impact factor[27] Ratio articles / citations for a journal during a publishing period. Higher is better.

wikipedia - For artificially created life forms, see Synthetic life.

# Operating Systems

The Profession of IT: Fifty Years of Operating Systems - ACM March 2016, p.30

Baldwin Effect [28] - Learned behavior on evolution. organism's ability to learn new behaviors (e.g. to acclimatize to a new stressor) will affect its reproductive success and will therefore have an effect on the genetic makeup of its species through natural selection.

Strong Alife - A.L. is life but expressed in software.

Weak Alife - A.L. is a software simulation useful in understanding underlying biology.

Program-based -> more along the lines of what I want to do.

John Maynard Smith[29] "Evolution and the Theory of Games".

Darwin Machine[30] Like a Turing Machine except that it uses evolutionary processes and not logic to solve a problem.

Biocommunication[31] but no "German Ambassador Problem" like term.

The Artificial Life Laboratory[32]

Mutant OS notes

# Random Number Generator

For mutation in software to work a truly scientific random number generator is needed. Something less would not produce the variety needed to drive evolution in a population. The article Spooky Action in Scientific American, December 2018, p. 59, describes a possible public random number server to secure public encryption systems. Such a service, even for a large fee, would solve that problem without having to purchase or maintain expensive hardware random number generators per computer.

From Scientific American April 2015 p.70 'Extreme Evolution' Cichlid fish - Abundant Mutations, Gene Duplication, Jumping Genes, Mutations in DNA That Typically Does Not Change, Novel microRNAs.

Mutation rate is not universal among species or within a species. The Mutation Rate can vary over a genome, say, more mutation for distinguishing facial characteristics and less for intestines.

Some genes are copied. The copied version is mutated and the original version frozen. Just in case something goes wrong. DNA version control.

ACM Feb 2016 Verification in a Distributed System.